The Influence of Iron Concentration on the Mechanical Properties of A356 Al Alloy for Car Rims Application


  • Victor Yuardi Risonarta (SCOPUS ID: 20434533200; h index: 3), Universitas Brawijaya
  • Juliana Anggono Petra Christian University
  • Geraldi Raka Aditya Petra Christian University



Al-Silicon Alloy, Car Wheels, Tensile Properties, Microstructure, Gravity Die Casting


A356.0 aluminum-silicon alloy is a base material for car rims application. Car rims are critical components for a vehicle as they carry the load of the passengers, goods, and the weight of the vehicle itself, therefore they should be sufficiently strong to withstand the vertical load, fatigue load, impact load, the side load and the braking force. Car rims are made by gravity die casting process. During the casting process, the inclusion of iron-content parts entering the molten Al can take place which leads to higher iron (Fe) concentration. High Fe con concentration lowers the toughness and the ductility of car rims. This study investigates the maximum value of Fe concentration that can be tolerated for acceptable mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy A356.0 for car rims application. The Fe concentration studied was 0.12 %wt, 0.16 %wt, and 0.20 %wt. Evaluation was performed on tensile and impact properties of the specimens. The test results show that increased Fe concentration decreases elongation, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Furthermore, there is a quite large decrease in UTS (by 34 MPa) when Fe concentration increases only by 0.06 %wt.  Impact strength decreases significantly from 15.47 to 2.91J/cm2 as Fe concentration content increases from 0.12 %wt. to 0.16 %wt. The porosity present in the casting is predicted to contribute to the ductility decrease. In addition, the decreasing value of UTS is predicted due to grain growth and dendrites formation. It is recommended that the maximum allowable Fe concentration for car rims application is 0.12 %wt.

Author Biography

Victor Yuardi Risonarta, (SCOPUS ID: 20434533200; h index: 3), Universitas Brawijaya

Mechanica engineering department


JAPANESE STANDARD ASSOCIATION, “JIS 5202: Aluminium alloy castingâ€, Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo, Mar. 2010.

ZOLOTOREVSKY, V.S., BELOV, N.A., GLAZOFF, M.V., “Alloying elements and dopants: Phase diagramsâ€, In: Casting Aluminum Alloys, chapter 1, Oxford, UK, Elsevier, 2007

STADLER, F., ANTREKOWITSCH, H., FRAGNER, W., KAUFMANN, H., UGGOWITZER, P., “Effect of main alloying elements on strength of Al–Si foundry alloys at elevated temperatures“, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, v. 25, n. 4., pp. 215-224, 2012.

SJOELANDER, E., SEIFEDDINE, S., “The heat treatment of Al–Si–Cu–Mg casting alloysâ€, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, v. 210, n. 10, pp. 1249-1259, 2010.

ANZIP, A., SUHARIYANTO, S., “Peningkatan sifat mekanik paduan aluminium A356.2 dengan penambahan manganese (Mn) dan perlakuan panas T6â€, Jurnal Teknik Mesin v. 8, n. 2, pp. 64-68, 2006.

ASGHAR, Z., REQUENA, G., KUBEL, F., “The role of Ni and Fe aluminades on the elevated temperature strength of an AlSi12 alloy", Materials Science and Engineering: A, v. 527, n. 21-22, pp. 5691-5698, 2010.

ZAMANI, M., Al-Si cast alloys - microstructure and mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperature, Dissertation, Department of Materials and Manufacturing, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden, 2015.

REQUENA, G., GARCES, G., RODRIGUEZ, M., PIRLING, T., CLOETENS, P., “3D architecture and load partition in eutectic Alâ€Si alloysâ€, Advanced Engineering Materials, v. 11, n.12, pp. 1007-1014, 2009.

TILLOVA, E., CHALUPOVA, M., and HURTAOVA, L., “Evolution of phases in a recycled Al-Si cast alloy during solution treatmentâ€, In: Scanning Electron Microscope, chapter 21, IntechOpen, London, UK, Mar. 2012

KHALIFA, W., SAMUEL, F.H., GRUZLESKI, J.E., â€Iron intermetallic phases in the Al corner of the Al-Si-Fe systemâ€, Metallurgical Material Transactions A, v. 34, n. 3, pp. 807-825, 2003.

TAYLOR, J.A., “The effect of iron in Al-Si casting alloysâ€, In: Proceedings of 35th Australian Foundry Institute National Conference, pp. 148-157, Adelaide, Nov. 2004.

TAYLOR, J.A., “Iron-containing intermetallic phases in Al-Si based casting alloysâ€. Procedia Materials Science, v. 1, pp. 19-33, Jun. 2012.

ZIHALOVA, M., BOLIBRUCHOVA, D., “Influence of iron in AlSi10MgMn alloyâ€, Archives of Foundry Engineering, v. 14, n. 4, pp. 109-112, 2014.

Hadleighcasting, Aluminium technologies,, accessed on July 1, 2019.

GASKELL, D. R., LAUGHLIN, D.E., “Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials, 6. ed., London, UK, CRC Press, 2017

Japanese Standard Association, “JIS Z2241: Metallic materials-tensile testing-method of test at room temperatureâ€, Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo, Jun. 2012.

Japanese Standard Association, “JIS Z2242: Method for Charpy pendulum impact test of metallic materialsâ€, Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo, Aug. 2018.

CREPAU, P.N., “Effect of iron in Al-Si casting alloys: a critical reviewâ€, AFS Transactions, v. 103, pp. 361-366, 1995.

MBUYA, T.O., ODERA, B.O., NG’ANG’A, S.P., “Influence of iron on castability and properties of aluminium silicon alloys: literature reviewâ€, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, v. 16, n. 5, pp. 451-465, 2003.

CHAO, J., REMENTERIA, R., ARANDA, M., CAPDEVILA, C., GONZALES-CARRASCO, J.M., “Comparison of ductile-to-brittle transition behavior in two similar ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloysâ€, Materials, v. 9, n. 8, pp. 637, 2006.

TILLOVA, E., CHALUPOVA, M., “Fatigue failure of recycled AlSi9Cu3 cast alloyâ€, Acta Metallurgica Slovaca Conference, v.1, n. 2, pp. 108–114, 2010.