Pengaruh Panjang Rantai Karbon dan Derajat Ketidakjenuhan terhadap Karakteristik Pembakaran Droplet Asam Lemak Tunggal


  • Ibrahim Ahmad Ibadurrohman Brawijaya University
  • Nurkholis Hamidi Brawijaya University
  • Lilis Yuliati Brawijaya University



Carbon Chain Length, Degree of Unsaturation, Fatty Acid, Droplet Combustion Characteristics


This study aimed to investigate the effect of the different carbon chain lengths and the degree of unsaturation of six fatty acids as the constituent of vegetable oils. The droplet combustion was carried out at an ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The variation in the carbon chain length and the degree of unsaturation resulted in different physical and chemical properties of the fuel, which affect the droplet combustion characteristics. The increase of the carbon chain length results in longer ignition delay times and shorter burning durations, as well as higher droplet temperatures, burning rate constant, and specific power output. Conversely, an increase in the degree of unsaturation with the presence of double bond results in shorter ignition delay and longer burning duration, as well as higher droplet temperatures, but lower burning rate constant and specific power output. The droplet diameter evolution divides the combustion period into unsteady burning zones and quasi-linear burning zones. The flame dimension of unsaturated fatty acid is higher due to the soot formation at the top of the flame. A bluish flame related to the higher oxygen content in the molecule can be observed in saturated fatty acids. The short-chain saturated fatty acid has a large non-luminous zone because they are rich in oxygen. In contrast, the long-chain saturated fatty acid has a narrow non-luminous zone with high flame radiation.


BENJUMEA, P., AGUDELO, J. R., & AGUDELO, A. F., “Effect of the degree of unsaturation of biodiesel fuels on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissionsâ€, Energy and Fuels, v. 25, n. 1, pp. 77-85, Desember 2010.

ALVISO, D., ARTANA, G. & DURIEZ, T., “Prediction of biodiesel physico-chemical properties from its fatty acid composition using genetic programmingâ€, Fuel, v. 264, Desember 2019.

ISLAM, M. A., AYOKO, G. A., BROWN, R., STUART, D. & HEIMANN, K., “Influence of fatty acid structure on fuel properties of algae derived biodieselâ€, Procedia Engineering, v. 56, pp. 591-596, 2013.

FOLAYAN, A. J., ANAWE, P. A. L., ALADEJARE, A. E. & AYENI, A. O., “Experimental investigation of the effect of fatty acids configuration, chain length, branching and degree of unsaturation on biodiesel fuel properties obtained from lauric oils, high-oleic and high-linoleic vegetable oil biomassâ€, Energy Reports, v. 5, pp. 793–806, Juli 2019.

FERDINAND, W., SAKO, A., FOFANA, A. & BLAISE, K., “Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuelsâ€, Energy, v. 35, pp. 4949-4954, September 2010.

SAJJADI, B., RAMAN, A. A. A. & ARANDIYAN, H., “A comprehensive review on properties of edible and non-edible vegetable oil-based biodiesel: Composition, specifications and prediction modelsâ€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 63, pp. 62–92, Mei 2016.

GOPINATH, A., SAIRAM, K., VELRAJ, R. & KUMARESAN, G., “Effects of the properties and the structural configurations of fatty acid methyl esters on the properties of biodiesel fuel : a reviewâ€, In: Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, pp. 1-34, 2014.

BERMAN, P., MEIRI, N., COLNAGO, L. A., MORAES, T. B., LINDER, C., LEVI, O., PARMET, Y., SAUNDERS, M. & WIESMAN, Z., “Study of liquid-phase molecular packing interactions and morphology of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel)â€, Biotechnology for Biofuels, v. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2015.

ALLEMAN, T. L., MCCORMICK, R. L., CHRISTENSEN, E. D., FIORONI, G., MORIARTY, K. & YANOWITZ, J., Biodiesel handling and use guide, 5 ed., United States, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2016.

DESHMUKH, S., KUMAR, R. & BALA, K., “Microalgae biodiesel: A review on oil extraction, fatty acid composition , properties and effect on engine performance and emissionsâ€, Fuel Processing Technology, v. 191, pp. 232–247, Mei 2019.

ZAHAN, K. A. & KANO, M., “Biodiesel production from palm oil, its by-products, and mill effluent: A reviewâ€, Energies, v. 11, no. 8, pp. 1–25, Agustus 2018.

HOEKMAN, S. K., BROCH, A., ROBBINS, C., CENICEROS, E. & NATARAJAN, M., “Review of biodiesel composition, properties, and specificationsâ€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 16, pp. 143–169, Oktober 2011.

KNOTHE, G., “Designer biodiesel: optimizing fatty ester composition to improve fuel propertiesâ€, Energy and Fuels, v. 22, pp. 1358–1364, 2008.

LEVINE, F., KAYEA, R. V., WEXLER, R., SADVARY, D. J., MELICK, C. & SCALA, J. L., “Heats of combustion of fatty acids and fatty acid estersâ€, Journal of the American Oil Chemist Society, v. 91, no. 2, pp. 235–249, Oktober 2013.

MUANRUKSA, P. & KAEWKANNETRA, P., “Combination of fatty acids extraction and enzymatic esterification for biodiesel production using sludge palm oil as a low-cost substrateâ€, Renewable Energy, v. 146, pp. 901-906, Juli 2019.

MEIRI, N., BERMAN, P., COLNAGO, L. A., MORAES, T. B., LINDER, C. & WIESMAN, Z., “Liquid-phase characterization of molecular interactions in polyunsaturated and n-fatty acid methyl esters by 1H low-field nuclear magnetic resonanceâ€, Biotechnology for Biofuels, v. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2015.

WANG, J., ZHANG, H., ZHANG, Q., QIAO, X., WANG, X. & JU, D., “Flame spread and combustion characteristics of two adjacent jatropha oil droplets,†Fuel, v. 285, Agustus 2020.

OOI, J. B., YAP, J.-H., TRAN, M.-V. & LEONG, J. C. K., “Experimental Investigation on the Droplet Burning Behavior of Diesel-Palm Biodiesel Blendsâ€, Energy Fuels, v. 33, pp. 11804-11811, September 2019.

MARLINA, E., WIJAYANTI, W., YULIATI, L. & WARDANA, I. N. G., “The role of pole and molecular geometry of fatty acids in vegetable oils droplet on ignition and boiling characteristicsâ€, Renewable Energy, v. 145, pp. 596–603, Juni 2019.

ZHU, M., SETYAWAN, H. Y., ZHANG, Z. & ZHANG, D., “Effect of n-butanol addition on the burning rate and soot characteristics during combustion of single droplets of diesel-biodiesel blendsâ€, v. 265, Januari 2020.

FAIK, A. M. & ZHANG, Y., “Liquid-phase dynamics during the two-droplet combustion of diesel-based fuel mixturesâ€, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, v. 115, Februari 2020.

LI, T. X., ZHU, D. L., AKAFUAH, N. K., SAITO, K. & LAW, C. K., “Synthesis, droplet combustion , and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oilsâ€, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, v. 33, no. 2, pp. 2039–2046, September 2010.

AGGARWAL, S. K., “Single droplet ignition: Theoretical analyses and experimental findingsâ€, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, v. 45, pp. 79–107, Juni 2014.

ZHU, L., CHEUNG, C. S. & HUANG, Z., “Impact of chemical structure of individual fatty acid esters on combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engineâ€, Energy, v. 107, pp. 305–320, April 2016.

GIAKOUMIS, E. G. & SARAKATSANIS, C. K., “Estimation of biodiesel cetane number, density, kinematic viscosity and heating values from its fatty acid weight compositionâ€, Fuel, v. 222, pp. 574–585, Maret 2018.

KNOTHE, G., “Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl estersâ€, Fuel Processing Technology, v. 86, no. 10, pp. 1059–1070, 2005.

KNOTHE, G. & STEIDLEY, K. R., “Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel components (fatty acid alkyl esters) and related compounds at low temperaturesâ€, Fuel, v. 86, no. 16, pp. 2560–2567, Maret 2007.

LIEBERT, M. A., “Final report on the safety assessment of oleic acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, and stearic acidâ€, Journal of The American College of Toxicology, v. 6, no. 3, pp. 321-401, 1987.

KNOTHE, G. & STEIDLEY, K. R., “Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel componentsâ€, Fuel, v. 84, no. 9, pp. 1059–1065, Februari 2005.

FASSINOU, W. F., “Higher heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils, fats and biodiesels evaluation based on their pure fatty acids’ HHVâ€, Energy, v. 45, pp. 798–805, Juli 2012.

PERDANA, D., WARDANA, I. N. G., YULIATI, L. & HAMIDI, N., “The role of fatty acid structure in various pure vegetable oils on flame characteristics and stability behavior for industrial furnaceâ€, Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, v. 5, no. 8, pp. 65–75, 2018.

ALKAN, C. & SARI, A., “Fatty acid/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends as form-stable phase change materials for latent heat thermal energy storageâ€, Solar Energy, v. 82, pp. 118–124, Agustus 2007.

DHIVYA, S., HUSSAIN, S. I., SHEELA, S. J. & KALAISELVAM, S., “Experimental study on microcapsules of Ag doped ZnO nanomaterials enhanced Oleic-Myristic acid eutectic PCM for thermal energy storageâ€, Thermochimica Acta, v. 671, pp. 70–82, November 2018.

GARZÓN, N. A. N., OLIVEIRA, A. A. M. & BAZZO, E., “An ignition delay correlation for compression ignition engines fueled with straight soybean oil and diesel oil blendsâ€, Fuel, v. 257, Agustus 2019.

HAN, K., PANG, B., MA, X., CHEN, H., SONG, G. & NI, Z., “An experimental study of the burning characteristics of acetone-butanol-ethanol and diesel blend dropletsâ€, Energy, v. 139, pp. 853–861, Agustus 2017.

PINHEIRO, A. P., VEDOVOTO, J. M., NETO, A. D. S. & WACHEM, B. G. M. V., “Ethanol droplet evaporation: effects of ambient temperature, pressure and fuel vapor concentrationâ€, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, v. 143, Agustus 2019.

XIAO, H., ZHAO, L., LI, Z., WEI, M. & GUO, G., “Development of a simplified model for droplet vaporization,†Thermal Science, v. 20, no. 1, pp. 337–345, 2016.

WALUYO, B., WARDANA, I. N. G., YULIATI, L., SASONGKO, M. N. & SETIYO, M., “The role of polar ethanol induction in various iso-octane ethanol fuel blend during single droplet combustionâ€, Fuel Processing Technology, v. 199, November 2019.

SIDQI, B., ROSYADI, F. & WARDANA, I. N. G. BURNING., “Burning Rate Constants and Microexplosion Phenomena Measurements of Droplet Combustionâ€, Jurnal Rekayasa Mesin, v. 5, no. 1, pp. 59-67, 2014.

HELLIER, P., LADOMMATOS, N. & YUSAF, T., “The influence of straight vegetable oil fatty acid composition on compression ignition combustion and emissionsâ€, Fuel, v. 143, pp. 131-143, November 2014.

BASU, S. & MIGLANI, A., “Combustion and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid fuel droplets: A short reviewâ€, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, v. 96, pp. 482–503, Februari 2016.

HAN, K., CHEN, H., YANG, B., MA, X., SONG, G. & LI, Y., “Experimental investigation on droplet burning characteristics of diesel-benzyl azides blendâ€, Fuel v. 190, pp. 32–40, November 2016.

ANDO, S., WU, Y., NAKAYA, S. & TSUE, M., “Droplet combustion behavior of oxidatively degraded methyl laurate and methyl oleate in microgravity,†Combustion and Flame, v. 214, pp. 199-210, 2020.

MUELAS, Ã., REMACHA, P. & BALLESTER, J., “Droplet combustion and sooting characteristics of UCO biodiesel, heating oil and their mixtures under realistic conditionsâ€, Combustion and Flame, v. 203, pp. 190–203, Februari 2019.

KNOTHE, G. & STEIDLEY, K. R., “Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel componentsâ€, Fuel, v. 84, pp. 1059-1065, Februari 2005.

XUE, S., STEINBERGER, Y. & WANG, J. S., “Biodiesel potential of nonfood plant resources from Tsinling and Zhongtiao biodiesel potential of nonfood plant resources from Tsinling and Zhongtiao mountains of Chinaâ€, Bioenergy Research, v. 6, pp. 1104-1117, Juni 2013.

FAROUK, T. I., WON, S. H. & DRYER, F. L., “Sub-millimeter sized multi-component jet fuel surrogate droplet combustion: physicochemical preferential vaporization effectsâ€, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, pp. 1-11, September 2020.

XU, Y., FAROUK, T. I., HICKS, M. C. & AVEDISIAN, C. T., “Initial diameter effects on combustion of unsupported equi-volume n-heptane/iso-octane mixture droplets and the transition to cool flame behavior: experimental observations and detailed numerical modelingâ€, Combustion and Flame, v. 220, pp. 82–91, 2020.

PASTOR, J. V, GARCÃA, A., MICÓ, C. & GARCÃA-CARRERO, A. A., “Experimental study of influence of liquefied petroleum gas addition in hydrotreated vegetable oil fuel on ignition delay, flame lift off length and soot emission under diesel-like conditions,†Fuel, v. 260, Oktober 2019.

JHA, S. K., FERNANDO, S. & TO, S. D. F., “Flame temperature analysis of biodiesel blends and componentsâ€, Fuel, v. 87, no. 10, pp. 1982–1988, November 2007.