Pemanfaatan Kotoran Ternak sebagai Energi Terbarukan Melalui Pembangunan Biodigester Komunal


  • Christia Meidiana Universitas Brawijaya
  • Zhuniart Ayu Perdanasari Universitas Brawijaya
  • Dian Dinanti Universitas Brawijaya



Spatial Cluster Analysis, Biogas, Overlay Technique, Livestock Manure Waste


The potentials of energy from manure waste was calculated in this study aiming to develop biogas utilization in a rural area. The calculation was conducted based on the result from clustering the non-biogas farmer households which cannot afford individual anaerobic digester (AD). Spatial cluster analysis (SCA) and superimposed technique were used to determine the size of the groups and the location of ADs respectively. Value from SCA showed that the village’s settlement pattern is clustered feasible to apply communal AD for rural biogas development. Meanwhile, a superimposed technique using 3 parameters which are land availability, cow ownership, and topography, generates 43 clusters of farmer households that can supply biogas for cooking. The energy production is estimated at 8.96-39.68 m3/day/household, while the energy demand is approximately 0.65-3.48 m3/day/household. The calculation shows that there is remaining biogas that can be distributed to non-biogas farmer households. Using SCA, 75 non-biogas farmer households were identified to be potentially supplied by biogas. The total energy demand for both biogas and non-biogas farmers households is 2,147.34 MJ/day, while the total potential energy generation from all ADs is 24,560.64 MJ/day indicating a low biogas utilization rate which is only 8.7%. The percentage shows that biogas utilization for an energy source in Dusun Dresel can be more developed by enhancing the distribution network or by converting it into electricity to support rural energy security.


YUANA, X., ZUO, J., “Pricing and affordability of renewable energy in China –A case study of Shandong Provinceâ€, Renewable Energy, v. 36, n. 3, pp. 1111-1117, March 2011

HAMID, R.G., BLANCHARD, R.E., “An assessment of biogas as a domestic energy source in rural Ken-ya: Developing a sustainable business modelâ€, Renewable Energy, v. 121, pp. 368-376, June 2018

WANG, C., ZHANG Y., ZHANG, L., PANG, M., “Alternative policies to subsidize rural household biogas digestersâ€, Energy Policy v. 93, pp. 187-195, June 2016

ZHANG, L.X., WANG, C.B., SONG, B., “Carbon emission reduction potential of a typical household biogas system in rural Chinaâ€, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 47, pp. 415–421, May 2013.

RAO, V.P., BARAL, S.S., DEY, R., MUTNURI, S., “Biogas generation potential by anaerobic digestion for sustainable energy development in Indiaâ€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 14, n. 7, pp. 2086–2094, September 2010.

KHAN, U.K., MAINALI, B., MARTIN, A., SILVIERA, S., “Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, v. 7, pp. 68 – 78, September 2014

ANTHONY, D.O., “Renewable energy: externality costs as market barriersâ€, Energy Policyv, v. 34, n. 5, pp. 632–642, March 2006

ANNA, P., “Renewable energy in South Africa: potentials, barriers and options for supportâ€, Energy Policy v. 38, n. 9, pp. 4945–4954, September 2010.

IGONI, A.H., AYOTAMUNO, M.J., EZE, C.L., OGAJI, S.O.T., PROBET, S.D., “Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid-wasteâ€, Applied Energy, v. 85, n. 6, pp. 430–438, June 2008.

ZUBARYEVA, A., ZACCARELLI, N., DEL GIUDICE, C., ZURLINI, G., “Spatially explicit assessment of local biomassas availability for distributed biogas production via anaerobic co-digestion – Mediter-ranean case study†Renewable Energy, v. 39, pp. 261–270, March 2012.

SUGIYONO, A., FITRIANA, I., ANINDHITA, FNU., WAHID, LOMA., ADIARSO. 2018. Outlook En-ergi Indonesia 2017. Inisiatif pengembangan teknologi energi bersih, Jakarta. Pusat Teknologi Sum-ber Daya Energi dan Industri Kimia, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), 2017

WIBOWO, R., “Analisis Thermal Nilai Kalor Briket Ampas Batang Tebu dan Serbuk Gergajiâ€, Jurnal Rekayasa Mesin, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 9 – 15, 2019

NUGRAHA, A., WIDODO, A., WAHYUDI, S., “Pengaruh Tekanan Pembriketan dan Persentase Briket Capuran Gambut dan Arang Pelepah Daun Kelapa Sawit terhadap Karaketeristik Pembakaran Briketâ€, Jurnal Rekayasa Mesin, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 29 – 36, 2017

MORERO, B., GROPPELLI, E., CAMPANELLA, E.A., “Life cycle assessment of biomethane use in Argentinaâ€, Bioresource Technology, v. 182, pp. 208 – 216, April 2015.

HUTTUNEN, S., MANNINEN, K., LESKINEN, P., “Combining biogas LCA reviews withstakeholder interviews to analyse life cycle impacts at a practical levelâ€, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 80, pp. 5 – 16, October 2014.

SILVA, S., ALCADA-ALMEIDA, L., DIAS, L.C., “Biogas Plants Site Selection. Integrating Multi Crite-ria Decision Aid methods and GIS techniques: A case study in a Portuguese regionâ€, Biomassas and Bi-oenergy, v. 71, pp. 58 – 68, December 2014.

LYBAEK, R., KJAER T., “Pre-assessment of the circular economic benefits and challenges of biogas production in Denmark when utilizing sand bedding in dairy cow stablesâ€, Journal of Cleaner Produc-tion v. 219, pp. 268-277, May 2019.

LOPEZ-VAZQUEZ, C.M., MITHAIWALA, M., MOUSSA, M.S., BRDJANOVIC, D., “Coupling ASM3 and ADM1 for wastewater treatment process optimisation and biogas production in a developing country: Case-study Surat, Indiaâ€, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, v. 3, n. 1, pp. 12-25, March 2013.

MEIDIANA, C., SELVIA, S.I., DINANTI, D. (2018) “Increasing Farmers’ Affordability for Anaerobic Digester Construction in Rural Area Using Spatial Cluster Analysisâ€, In: McLellan, B. (eds), Sustainable Future for Human Security, Part III, Singapore, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2018

KURKA., T., JEFFERIES, C., BLACKWOOD, D., “GIS-based location suitability of decentralized, `me-dium scale bioenergy developments to estimate transport CO2 emissions and costâ€, Biomassas Bioen-ergy, v. 46, pp. 366–379, November 2012.

SUTANA, A., KUMAR, A., “Optimal siting and size of bioenergy facilities using geographic information systemâ€, Applied Energy, v. 94, pp. 193–201, June 2012.

CHUKWUMA, E.C., “Facility location allocation modelling for bio-energy system in Anambra State of Nigeria: Integration of GIS and location modelâ€, Renewable Energy, v. 141, pp. 193–201pp.460-467, October 2019.

DAGNALL S, HILL J, PEGG, D., “Resource mapping and analysis of farm livestock manures–assessing the opportunities for biomass-to-energy schemesâ€, Bioresource Technology, v. 71, pp. 225–234, February 2000

SCARLAT, N., FAHL, F., DALLEMAN, J., MONFORTI, MOTOLA, V., “A spatial analysis of biogas potential from manure in Europeâ€, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 94, pp. 915–930, October 2018.

ALI, M.M., NDONGO, M., BILAL, B., YETILMEZSOYC, K., YOUM, I., BAHRAMIANC, M., “Map-ping of biogas production potential from livestock manures and slaughterhouse waste: A case study for African countriesâ€, Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 256, pp. 1-17, May 2020.

GURUNG, A., KARKI, R., CHO, J.S., PARK, K.W., OH, SE., “Roles of renewable energy technologies in improving the rural energy situation in Nepal: Gaps and opportunitiesâ€. Energy Policy, v. 62, pp. 1104-1109, November 2013.

MULDER P, TEMBE J (2008) “Rural electrification in an imperfect world: a case study from Mozam-biqueâ€, Energy Policy, v. 36, pp. 2785–2794, August 2008

VAISSI, S., SHARIFI, M., “Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis with a GIS-based siting proce-dure to select a protected area for the Kaiser's mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Caudata: Sala-mandridae)â€, Global Ecology and Conservation, v. 20, pp. 1-15, October 2019

STESSENS, P., CANTERS, F., HUYSMANS, M., KHAN, A.Z., “Urban green space qualities: An inte-grated approach towards GIS-based assessment reflecting user perceptionâ€, Land Use Policy, v. 91, pp. 1-15, February 2020

MONTEIRO, E, MANTHA, V, ROUBOA, A., “Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugalâ€, Renewable Energyâ€, v. 36, n. 2, pp. 627-631, February 2011.

WAHYUNI, S., Biogas Energi Alternatif Pengganti BBM, Gas, dan Listrik, Jakarta, PT. Agro Media Pustaka., 2013.

LPELC (Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Community), Diakses: Agustus.2019

DEPARTEMEN PERTANIAN, Program Bio Energi Pedesaan-Biogas Skala Rumah Tangga. Jakarta, Ditjen PPHP – Departemen Pertanian, 2006.