Pengaruh Clamping Frame Kayu Meranti dan ASTM A36 pada Friction Spot Joining AL 1100 dan PVC


  • Rudianto Raharjo Universitas Brawijaya
  • Nurkholis Hamidi Universitas Brawijaya
  • Teguh Dwi Widodo Universitas Brawijaya
  • Redi Bintarto Universitas Brawijaya
  • Endi Habibulfalah Universitas Brawijaya



Clamping Frame, Meranti, Friction Spot Joining


In this paper, the effect of welding parameters on the shear strength of Al-PVC hybrid structures was discussed. This Research developed welding parameters in the form of Plunge Depth, heating time, and clamping frame materials. By these different parameters would result in different shear strength of welded materials. Following optimization of the process, a detailed comparison of the properties and microstructures of two different materials (meranti wood and ASTM A36 Steel) would affect to different values of thermal conductivity. The Aluminum used was Al 1100, which was welded by using a friction stir spot welding method with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). In this study, by the different heating times, the shear test was carried out with the ASTM D3163 standard. In this study, it was found that the maximum temperature of Aluminum occurs during the 2nd second of the welding process and then decreased in the 5th second until 60th second. However, the optimum shear strength found at 20th second. Following heat transfer and degradation materials, the 2mm plunge depth has a higher temperature and higher shear strength than 1,5mm plunge depth. Differences in the response of the two depth were attributed to the difference in mechanical interlocking. This study found that the ASTM A36 clamping frame maximum shear load of 182.4 N is higher than meranti wood frame of 125.5 N. Differences in these value are attributed to the differences of the thermal conductivity, which meranti wood had a lower thermal conductivity than ASTM A36. These have findings significant implications for the commercial application of welding hybrid structures. The best way to take advantage of the benefit of AL-PVC Structure Hybrid for friction stir spot welding would appear to be 20 second heating time, 2mm plunge depth with ASTM clamping frame.


A. BANDYOPADHYAY, S. BOSE. Additive Manufacturing. CRC Press, Florida, 2015.

TD WIDODO, R RAHARJO, H KUSUMANINGSIH, R BINTARTO, RC SISWOYO. “Pengaruh Tegangan dan Waktu pada Proses Elektropolishing terhadap Surface Roghness Material Stainless Steel AISI 316Lâ€, Rekayasa Mesin 10 (3), 309-316, 2020.

C.K. CHUA, K.F. LEONG. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing: Principles and Applications, World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore, 2017.

LI, SICHUANG XUE, PATRICK PRICE, XING SUN, JIE DING, ZHONGXIA SHANG, ZHE FAN, HAN WANG, YIFAN ZHANG, YOUXING CHEN, HAIYAN WANG, KHALID HATTAR, XINGHANG ZHANG. “Hierarchical nano twins in single-crystal-like nickel with high strength and corrosion resistance produced via a hybrid techniqueâ€. Nanoscale; 12 (3): 1356, 2020.

BERND R. BURCHARDT, dan PETER W. MERZ. “Elastic Bonding and Sealing in Industryâ€, Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants Volume 2, Pages 355-480, 2006.

JIRI GEORGE DROBNY. “Thermoplastic Elastomers Based on Polyamidesâ€, Handbook of Thermoplastic Elastomers (Second Edition) Plastics Design Library, Pages 255-269, 2014.

COWIE, J. & MCKENZIE, G., Polymers: chemistry and physics of modern materials. Glasgow: Blackie, 1991.

FAKIH. M.A. & SAMIR, M. Friction Stir Welding in Plate Zone. Lebanon: American University of Beirut, 2016.

R. HAZIMEH, R. OTHMAN, K. KHALIL, and G. CHALLITA, “Influence of plies orientations on the stress distribution in adhesively bonded laminate composite joints subjected to impact loadings,†Composite Structures, vol. 152, pp. 654–664, 2016.

GOUSHEGIR S.M. Friction Spot Joining of aluminium AA2024/carbon-fibre-reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) composite single-lap joint. Hamburg: Mater, 2014.

HARSONO., WIRYOSUMARTO, & OKUMURA, T, Teknologi Pengelasan Logam. Jakarta : Pradnya Paramita, 1994.

HAQUE, R. & DURANDET, Y. “Investigation of self-pierce riveting (SPR) process data and specific joining eventsâ€. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 30, pp. 148-160, 2017.

KATAYAMA, S., KAWAHITO, Y. & ARAI, S. Effect of Surface Modification on Laser Direct Joining of Cyclic Olefin Polymer and Stainless Steel. Japan: Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, 2014.

KO, D. & LAMBIASE, F. Two Steps Clinching of Alumunium and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets. South Korea: Graduate School of Convergence Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, 2016.

R BINTARTO, TD WIDODO, R RAHARJO, MS MA’ARIF, FGU DEWI, dan GD PRATAMA, “Analisa Struktur Mikro dan Kekuatan Bending Sambungan Las TIG dengan Perbedaan Kuat Arus Listrik pada Logam Tak Sejenis Aluminium Paduan 5052-Baja Galvanis dengan Filler Al-Si 4043â€, Rekayasa Mesin 11 (1), 125-131, 2020.

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM). Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Structural Steel. United States, 2014.

MATERIALS (ASTM) D3163-01. Standard Test Method for Determining Strength of adhesively bonded rigid plastic lap shear joint in shear tension loading. United States, 2002.