Pengaruh Waktu dan Tekanan Gesek terhadap Kekuatan Tarik Sambungan Paduan Aluminium dan Baja Karbon pada Pengelasan Gesek Continuous Drive


  • Jack Carol Adolf Pah University of Nusa Cendana Kupang and a Student at Barawijaya University
  • Yudy Surya Irawan Universitas Brawijaya
  • Wahyono Suprapto Universitas Brawijaya



Friction Welding, Friction Time, Friction Pressure, Tensile Strength, AA6061, Carbon Steel


The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of friction time and friction pressure on the tensile strength of the joining of two dissimilar materials, aluminum alloy AA6061 and carbon steel, with continuous drive friction welding process. Variations of friction times of 5 seconds, 7 seconds, 9 seconds, and 11 seconds, at each variation of friction pressures of 24 MPa, 32 MPa, and 40 MPa. Controlled variables in this friction welding process were rotational speed of 1600 rpm, upset pressure of 79 MPa which was applied for 60 seconds and diameter of friction surface of specimens which were 15 mm. The resulting strength of the bonding were than evaluated on the basis of tensile strength. Observations of temperature change during the welding process, the distribution of Vickers hardness values around the bonds area, and micro photographs, were used as support to the analysis. The results showed that the longer friction time was applied, the higher tensile strength of the bonds would be, until it began to decrease after a certain maximum value of the tensile strength had been reached. Increased of the tensile strength of the bonding did not occur linearly due to the variation of friction pressure at 9 seconds and 11 seconds of friction time. At 5 seconds and 7 seconds of friction time, increase of friction pressure caused a linear increase of tensile strength. Higher temperatures in the welding process increased the thickness of brittle layer at the bonds boundary. The increase of the brittle layer thickness causes decrease of the tensile strength of the bonds.

Author Biography

Jack Carol Adolf Pah, University of Nusa Cendana Kupang and a Student at Barawijaya University

Educative staff at the Mechanical Engineering Department of UNDANA Kupang


Taban, E., Gould, J. E., & Lippold, J. C. (2010). Dissimilar Friction Welding of 6061-T6 Aluminum and AISI 1018 Steel. Materials and Design. ELSAVIER, Vol. 31, pp.2305-2311.

Shubhavardhan, R.N., & Surendran, S. (2012). Friction Welding to Joint Dissimilar Metals. IJETAE, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 200-210.

Uzkut, M., Unlu, B.S., & Akdag, M. (2011). Determination of Optimum Welding Parameters in Connecting High Alloyed X53CrMnNiN219 and X45CrSi93 by Friction Welding. Bulletin of Materials Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 815-823.

Irawan, Y.S., Suprapto, W., Oerbandono, T., January, A.R., Kekar, A., Wijaksono, M & Fauzan, R. (2017). Torsion Strength of Round Bar A6061 Friction Weld Joint Influenced by Friction Time, Upset Force, and One-Side Cone Geometry. Journal of Environmental Engineering & Sustainable Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 78-84.

Sahin, M., & Misirli, C. (2013). Mechanical and Metalurgical Properties of Friction Welded Aluminium Joints. Edited, Zaki Ahmad. INTECH, Ch. 11, pp. 278-300.

Irawan, Y.S., Imawan, B., Soenoko, R., & Purnomo, H. (2016). Effect of Surface Roughness and Chamfer Angle on Tensile Strength of Round Aluminum A6061 Produced by Continuous Drive Friction Welding. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 11. No. 6. Pp. 1178-1185.

Alves, P.E., Neto, F.P., & Chen,Y.A. (2010). Welding of AA 1050 Aluminum with AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Rotary Friction Welding Process. Aersop Technol Manag (Sao Jose Dos Campos), Vol. 2. No. 3, pp. 301-306.

Irawan, Y.S., Wirohardjo, M., & Ma’arif, S. (2012). Tensile Strength of Weld Joint Produced by Spinning Friction Welding of Round Aluminum A6061 with Various Chamfer Angles. Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 576, pp. 761-765.

AWS B4.0-98, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Weld. (2003). American Welding Society. Miami.

Ambroziak, A., Korzeniowski, M., Kustron, P., Winnicki, M., Sokolowski, P., & Harapinska, E. (2014). Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy with Steel. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2014. pp. 1-15.

Novak, P., Michalcova, A., Marek, I., Mudrova, M., Saksl, K., Bednarcik, J., Zikmund, P., & Vojtech, D. (2013). On Formation of Intermetallic in Fe-Al System an in Situ XRD Study. ELSAVIER, Vol. 32, pp. 127-136.