COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVATION OF GIGANTOCHLOA APUS TO INCREASE THE ADSORPTION ABILITY OF MEDICAL LIQUID WASTE

Authors

  • Putu Hadi Setyarini Universitas Brawijaya
  • Jemmie Iksandy Universitas Brawijaya
  • M. Qashmal Fachrezi Universitas Brawijaya
  • Achmad As'ad Sonief Universitas Brawijaya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21776/jrm.v15i1.1796

Keywords:

Gigantochloa Apus, Activated Carbon, Adsorption, Medical Liquid Waste

Abstract

Medical facilities are exposed to substantial health and safety hazards as a result of the existence of perilous substances such as germs, viruses, and mold. The integration of drug use courses in medical education is hindered by constraints such as time limitations, a scarcity of well-informed personnel, and insufficient institutional backing. In order to mitigate these dangers, a comprehensive assessment of the risks, effective instruction, and stringent procedures are required. Effective waste management systems and precise detection of influent are crucial. Activated carbon, a highly porous material, is extensively utilized as an adsorbent in several industrial applications. Bamboo charcoal, a desirable lignocellulosic substance, is employed in the manufacturing process of activated carbon. The objective of the study was to generate and examine activated carbons obtained from Gigantochloas Apus (GA) through the utilization of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl) activation methods. The study determined that was the most efficient activating agent for achieving ideal ash content characteristics, resulting in the lowest ash percentage of 6.21%. The acidity of medical liquid waste is increased and its adsorption duration is extended by activating GA with NaCl and NaOH.

References

Che Huei L, Ya-Wen L, Chiu Ming Y, Li Chen H, Jong Yi W, Ming Hung L. “Occupational health and safety hazards faced by healthcare professionals in Taiwan: A systematic review of risk factors and control strategies”. SAGE Open Medicine, v. 8, 205031212091899, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312120918999.

Manisalidis I, Stavropoulou E, Stavropoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. “Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review”. Frontiers in Public Health v.8, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014.

Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I. “Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology of Hazardous Heavy Metals: Environmental Persistence, Toxicity, and Bioaccumulation”. Journal of Chemistry v. 2019, pp.1 –14, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6730305.

Lee SM, Lee D. “Effective Medical Waste Management for Sustainable Green Healthcare”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health v. 19, 14820, 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214820.

Odonkor ST, Mahami T. “Healthcare waste management in Ghanaian hospitals: Associated public health and environmental challenges”. Waste Management & Research, v. 38, pp. 831–9, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242x20914748.

Parida VK, Saidulu D, Majumder A, Srivastava A, Gupta B, Gupta AK. “Emerging contaminants in wastewater: A critical review on occurrence, existing legislations, risk assessment, and sustainable treatment alternatives”. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, v. 9, 105966, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.105966.

Khan MT, Shah IA, Ihsanullah I, Naushad Mu, Ali S, Shah SHA, et al. “Hospital wastewater as a source of environmental contamination: An overview of management practices, environmental risks, and treatment processes”. Journal of Water Process Engineering, v. 41, 101990, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2021.101990.

Kapoor RT, Danish M, Singh RS, Rafatullah M, H.P.S. AK. “Exploiting microbial biomass in treating azo dyes contaminated wastewater: Mechanism of degradation and factors affecting microbial efficiency”. Journal of Water Process Engineering v. 43, 102255, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2021.102255.

Hand S, Cusick RD. “Electrochemical Disinfection in Water and Wastewater Treatment: Identifying Impacts of Water Quality and Operating Conditions on Performance”. Environmental Science & Technology v. 55, pp3470–3482, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06254.

Bergmann H. “Electrochemical disinfection – State of the art and tendencies”. Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 28:100694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coelec.2021.100694.

Mariana M, H.P.S. AK, Mistar EM, Yahya EB, Alfatah T, Danish M, et al. “Recent advances in activated carbon modification techniques for enhanced heavy metal adsorption”. Journal of Water Process Engineering v. 43, 102221, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2021.102221.

Iwanow M, Gärtner T, Sieber V, König B. “Activated carbon as catalyst support: precursors, preparation, modification and characterization”. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry v. 16, pp. 1188–1202, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjoc.16.104.

Egbosiuba TC, Abdulkareem AS, Kovo AS, Afolabi EA, Tijani JO, Auta M, et al. “Ultrasonic enhanced adsorption of methylene blue onto the optimized surface area of activated carbon: Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics”. Chemical Engineering Research and Design v. 153, pp. 315–336, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2019.10.016.

Kumar N, Pandey A, Rosy, Sharma YC. “A review on sustainable mesoporous activated carbon as adsorbent for efficient removal of hazardous dyes from industrial wastewater”. Journal of Water Process Engineering v. 54, 104054, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2023.104054.

Gao Y, Yue Q, Gao B, Li A. “Insight into activated carbon from different kinds of chemical activating agents: A review”. Science of The Total Environment v. 746, 141094, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141094.

Reza MS, Yun CS, Afroze S, Radenahmad N, Bakar MSA, Saidur R, et al. “Preparation of activated carbon from biomass and its’ applications in water and gas purification, a review”. Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences v. 27, pp. 208–238, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/25765299.2020.1766799.

Srivastava A, Gupta B, Majumder A, Gupta AK, Nimbhorkar SK. “A comprehensive review on the synthesis, performance, modifications, and regeneration of activated carbon for the adsorptive removal of various water pollutants”. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering v. 9, 106177, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.106177.

Bakar NA, Othman N, Yunus ZM, Altowayti WAH, Tahir M, Fitriani N, et al. “An insight review of lignocellulosic materials as activated carbon precursor for textile wastewater treatment”. Environmental Technology & Innovation v. 22, 101445, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2021.101445.

Duan D, Chen D, Huang L, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Wang Q, et al. “Activated carbon from lignocellulosic biomass as catalyst: A review of the applications in fast pyrolysis process”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis v. 158, 10524, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2021.105246.

Rong Y, Pan C, Song K, Chol Nam J, Wu F, You Z, et al. “Bamboo-derived hydrophobic porous graphitized carbon for adsorption of volatile organic compounds”. Chemical Engineering Journal v. 461, 141979, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2023.141979.

Raven PH, Gereau RE, Phillipson PB, Chatelain C, Jenkins CN, Ulloa Ulloa C. “The distribution of biodiversity richness in the tropics”. Science Advances v. 6, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc6228.

Kebede T, Berhe DT, Zergaw Y. “Combustion Characteristics of Briquette Fuel Produced from Biomass Residues and Binding Materials”. Journal of Energy v. 2022, pp. 1–10, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4222205.

Arang Aktif Teknis - SNI 06-3730-1995

Patil SN, Prasad SR. “An Impact of Nationwide Lockdown on Physico- chemical Parameters of Bhogavati River Water”. ES Energy & Environment 2020. https://doi.org/10.30919/esee8c931.

Song M, Zhou Y, Ren X, Wan J, Du Y, Wu G, et al. “Biowaste-based porous carbon for supercapacitor: The influence of preparation processes on structure and performance”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science v. 535, pp. 276–286, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.09.055.

Egbosiuba TC, Abdulkareem AS, Kovo AS, Afolabi EA, Tijani JO, Auta M, et al. “Ultrasonic enhanced adsorption of methylene blue onto the optimized surface area of activated carbon: Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics”. Chemical Engineering Research and Design v. 153, pp. 315–36, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2019.10.016.

Muniz GL, Borges AC, da Silva TCF, Batista RO, de Castro SR. “Chemically enhanced primary treatment of dairy wastewater using chitosan obtained from shrimp wastes: optimization using a Doehlert matrix design”. Environmental Technology v. 43, pp. 237–254, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1783372.

Gafri HFS, Mohamed Zuki F, Aroua MK, Hashim NA. “Mechanism of bacterial adhesion on ultrafiltration membrane modified by natural antimicrobial polymers (chitosan) and combination with activated carbon (PAC)”. Reviews in Chemical Engineering v. 35, pp. 421–443, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1515/revce-2017-0006.

Downloads

Published

2024-05-15

Issue

Section

Articles