• Bayu Agung Wicaksono Universitas Brawijaya
  • Moch. Agus Choiron Universitas Brawijaya
  • Anindito Purnowidodo Universitas Brawijaya



Circular Crash Box, Square Crash Box, Honeycomb Filled, Deformation Pattern, Energy Absorption


In the previous study, several researchers had developed circular and square crash box designs to enhance energy absorption. In this study, circular and square honeycomb filled crash box is investigated by varying the honeycomb cell dimension. Honeycomb filled is selected due to lightweight and high strength to weight ratio. The crash box modelling was carried out using the finite element method with a frontal and oblique load model. Honeycomb cell dimensions vary by using five models, which are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. This ratio compares the size of honeycomb pitch cell with the inner diameter of crash box. The inner diameter and the crash box thickness are 40 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The single cell wall and the double wall honeycomb thickness are 0,5 mm and 1 mm, respectively. The load model used is an impactor mass of 600 kg with a speed of 15 m/s. For oblique load model, the angle for the load is 300. In this study, energy absorption, deformation pattern and efficiency of the collision force (CFE) were observed, based on the results of computer simulations. The results show that square model with 25% honeycomb filled ratio (S25) has the highest energy absorption, both on frontal and oblique loading. Otherwise, the circle model with 25% honeycomb filled ratio (C25) has the highest CFE value for frontal loading, and S50 has the highest CFE value for oblique loading. The high CFE value is due to the reaction-displacement curve, which is quite stable. The deformation pattern on S25 model due to frontal load model is a diamond mode with five folds. This pattern shows a higher number fold than other square models. Whereas, on oblique load model, the S25 model generates a greater number of folding due to the number of honeycomb cells.  


ABDULLAH, N. A. Z., SANI, M. S. M., SALWANI, M. S., & HUSAIN, N. A. (2020). A review on crashworthiness studies of crash box structure. Thin-Walled Structures, 153(May), 106795.

NIA, A. A., & HAMEDANI, J. H. (2010). Comparative analysis of energy absorption and deformations of thin-walled tubes with various section geometries. Thin-Walled Structures, 48(12), 946–954.

ZAREI, H., & KRÖGER, M. (2008). Optimum honey comb filled crash absorber design. Materials and Design, 29(1), 193–204.

CHOIRON, M. A. (2020). Characteristics of deformation pattern and energy absorption in honeycomb filler crash box due to frontal load and oblique load test. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 2(7–104), 6–11.

PARTOVI MERAN, A., TOPRAK, T., & MUǦAN, A. (2014). Numerical and experimental study of crashworthiness parameters of honeycomb structures. Thin-Walled Structures, 78, 87–94.

KHOSHRAVAN, M. R., & NAJAFI POUR, M. (2014). Numerical and experimental analyses of the effect of different geometrical modelling on predicting compressive strength of honeycomb core. Thin-Walled Structures, 84, 423–431.

FRANK, T., & GRUBBER, K. (1992). Numerical simulation of frontal impact and offset collisions. CRAY Channel, Cray Research Inc.

QIU, N., GAO, Y., FANG, J., FENG, Z., SUN, G., & LI, Q. (2015). Crashworthiness analysis and design of multi-cell hexagonal columns under multiple loading cases. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 104, 89–101.

THOTA, J., TRABIA, M. B., & O’TOOLE, B. J. (2015). Computational prediction of low impact shock propagation in a lab-scale space bolted frame structure. International Journal of Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements, 3(2), 139–149.

SINGH, K., TRIPATHI, V., SARKAR, P., SHINDE, P. S., SINGH, K. K., TRIPATHI, V. K., SARKAR, P. K., & KUMAR, P. (2012). Critical J-Integral of Thin Aluminium Sheets Employing a Modified Single Edge Plate Specimen. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.Com, 2(3), 1360–1365.

PIRMOHAMMAD, SADJAD. (2021). Crashworthiness performance of concentric structures with different cross-sectional shapes under multiple loading conditions. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 235(2–3), 417–435.

ZHANG, J., & ASHBY, M. F. (1992). The out-of-plane properties of honeycombs. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 34(6), 475–489.

TRAN, T. N., & BAROUTAJI, A. (2018). Crashworthiness optimal design of multi-cell triangular tubes under axial and oblique impact loading. Engineering Failure Analysis, 93(May), 241–256.

ANDREWS, K., ENGLAND, G., & GHANI, E. (1983). Classification of The Axial Collapse of Cylindrical Tubes Under Quasi-Static Loading. International Journal of Mechanical Science, 25, 687-696.

FANG, J., GAO, Y., SUN, G., QIU, N., & LI, Q. (2015). On design of multi-cell tubes under axial and oblique impact loads. Thin-Walled Structures, 95, 115–126.

CHOIRON, M. A., HAPPY, H. K., PURNOWIDODO, A., & RIVAI, A. (2019). Deformation Pattern and Energy Absorption Analysis on Initial Fold Crash Box by Oblique Crash Test. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 494(1).