• Giovan Ganandy Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Herianto Herianto Universitas Gadjah Mada



Analogue Meat, Extrusion Techniques, Texture Analysis


Analogue meat products currently available are plant-based meats which have a texture and taste like conventional meats. The commonly used ingredient is soy protein. The purpose of this study is to see the interaction of the parameters of the percentage of soybean flour Isolated Soy Protein (ISP) and wheat flour Wheat Flour (WF), water content parameters, barrel temperature parameters, and oil content parameters on the texture of the analog meat. The extrusion process is carried out by a twin screw extrusion machine operates at speed of 50 rpm. The material is then fed into the extruder machine through the hopper. The specimen to be tested is in the form of a cylinder with a diameter of 10mm and a length of 50mm. Texture analysis test was carried out using the Brookfield CT3 Texture Analyzer machine. test results were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Turkey test. The barrel temperature parameter has the most influence on the Hardness, Adhesiveness, Gumminess and Chewiness values, while the water content parameter has the most influence on the Cohesiveness value, and the oil content has the most influence on Springiness. The interaction between the parameters of barrel temperature and water content (temperature*water) has a significant effect on Hardness, Gumminess and Chewiness (Turkey's test, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the interaction of the parameters of water content and oil content (water*oil) did not show a significant effect (Turkey's test, p<0.05) on the results of the texture analysis test. Meanwhile, the interaction of oil*temperature parameters showed a significant effect (Turkey's test, p<0.05) on Gumminess and Chewiness.


ISMAIL I., HWANG Y. H., JOO S. T., “Meat analog as future food: A review,” J. Anim. Sci. Technol., vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2020, doi: 10.5187/jast.2020.62.2.111.

BADAN PUSAT STATISTIK, “Rata-Rata Konsumsi per Kapita Seminggu Beberapa Macam Bahan Makanan Penting, 2007-2019,” 2020. seminggu-beberapa-macam-bahan-makanan-penting-2007-2019.html (accessed Mar. 04, 2021).

GUMILAR P., “Ini Alasan Kedelai Impor Lebih Digemari Produsen Tempe,” 2018. tempe (accessed Mar. 04, 2021).

EGBERT R., BORDERS C., “Achieving success with meat analogs,” Food Technol., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 2006.

FINNIGAN T. J. A., WALL B. T., WILDE P. J., STEPHENS F. B., TAYLOR S. L., FREEDMAN M. R., “Mycoprotein: The Future of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, a Symposium Review,” Curr. Dev. Nutr., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1–5, 2019, doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzz021.

ZHANG G., ZHAO X., LI X., DU G., ZHOU J., CHEN J., “Challenges and possibilities for bio- manufacturing cultured meat,” Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 97, no. January, pp. 443–450, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2020.01.026.

SMETANA S., MATHYS A., KNOCH A., HEINZ V., “Meat alternatives: life cycle assessment of most known meat substitutes,” Int. J. Life Cycle Assess., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1254–1267, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s11367- 015-0931-6.

DEKKERS B. L., BOOM R. M., VAN DER GOOT A. J., “Structuring processes for meat analogues,” Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 81, no. May, pp. 25–36, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2018.08.011.

BOUVIER J.-M., CAMPANELLA O. H., Extrusion Processing Technology. 2014. doi: 10.1002/9781118541685.

LIU K. S., HSIEH F. H., “Protein-protein interactions during high-moisture extrusion for fibrous meat analogues and comparison of protein solubility methods using different solvent systems,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2681–2687, 2008, doi: 10.1021/jf073343q.

RIAZ M. N., Texturized vegetable proteins. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011. doi: 10.1533/9780857093639.395.

UTOMO J. S., “Karakteristik Profil Tekstur Pangan (I): Metode Uniaxial Compresion Test dan Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) – Balitkabi,” 2020. tekstur-pangan-i-metode-uniaxial-compresion-test-dan-texture-profile-analysis-tpa/ (accessed Dec. 15, 2021).

TRINH K. T., GLASGOW S., “On The Texture Profile Analysis Test,” Chemeca, no. October, pp. 749– 760, 2012.

PALANISAMY M., TÖPFL S., BERGER R. G., HERTEL C., “Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of meat analogues based on Spirulina/lupin protein mixtures,” Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 245, no. 9, pp. 1889–1898, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00217-019-03298-w.

SAMARD S., GU B. Y., RYU G. H., “Effects of extrusion types, screw speed and addition of wheat gluten on physicochemical characteristics and cooking stability of meat analogues,” J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 4922–4931, 2019, doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9722.

ZAHARI I. et al., “Development of high-moisture meat analogues with hemp and soy protein using extrusion cooking,” Foods, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1–13, 2020, doi: 10.3390/foods9060772.

LIU L., CIFTCI O. N,, “Effects of high oil compositions and printing parameters on food paste properties and printability in a 3D printing food processing model,” J. Food Eng., vol. 288, no. May 2020, p. 110135, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2020.110135.