• Abdul Hamid Politeknik Negeri Madura
  • Misbakhul Fatah Politeknik Negeri Madura
  • Tegar Hermawan Priambodo Politeknik Negeri Madura
  • Septian Dwi Wijaya Politeknik Negeri Madura




Bioethanol, Black Sticky Rice, Distillation, Fermentation, Performance


Despite possessing non-renewable properties, fossil fuel is still widely used as a major energy source. Subsequently, the fossil fuel demand has been increasing while the supply is depleting over time leading to an energy crisis. Fossil fuel also causes associated environmental problems such as emissions as the primary driver of global warming and climate change. Thereby, the development of alternative fuels, such as bioethanol, is beneficial to combat the fossil fuel challenges. Bioethanol is a promising fuel owing to its renewable and environmentally friendly characteristics. In this study, bioethanol was synthesized by a fermentation process over yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae). The feedstock for this process is an abundant resource namely black sticky rice. Bioethanol resulting from this process was mixed with gasoline and applied to a motorcycle machine. The performance of bioethanol was defined by power, torque, and emission. The proportion of the mixture was varied with bioethanol content of 0%, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, and 40%. The mixture of bioethanol-gasoline produced higher power and torque value compared to gasoline. The E40 mixture had the highest power and torque value with 8.5 hp and 9.2 Nm respectively. However, the combustion of bioethanol-gasoline resulted in more CO2 emission, while the emissions of O2, NO, and NOx were lower. The lowest NOx emissions content was obtained at E30 and E40 blends, about 7 ppm. Meanwhile, the lowest NO emission content was obtained at E30 and E40 blends, about 6 ppm.

Author Biography

Abdul Hamid, Politeknik Negeri Madura

Heavy Equipment Mechanical Engineering


Y. LI, W. TANG, Y. CHEN, J. LIU, AND C. FON F. LEE, “Potential of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) as a biofuel,” Fuel, vol. 242, no. October 2018, pp. 673–686, 2019.

X. WU ET AL., “Catalytic Upgrading of Ethanol to n-Butanol: Progress in Catalyst Development,” ChemSusChem, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 71–85, 2018.

SUKRI, N. M. SASONGKO, AND D. T. WIDODO, “Pengaruh Campuran Bahan Bakar Biodiesel Wco - Diesel Terhadap Karakteristik Api Hasil Pembakaran Spray Difusi Pada Concentric Jet Burner,” J. Rekayasa Mesin, vol. 12, no. 02, pp. 459–466, 2021.

H. XIANG ET AL., “Catalytic conversion of bioethanol to value-added chemicals and fuels: A review,” Resour. Chem. Mater., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 47–68, 2022.

T. SAKAMOTO, T. HASUNUMA, Y. HORI, R. YAMADA, AND A. KONDO, “Direct ethanol production from hemicellulosic materials of rice straw by use of an engineered yeast strain codisplaying three types of hemicellulolytic enzymes on the surface of xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells,” J. Biotechnol., vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 203–210, 2012.

J. BAEYENS, Q. KANG, L. APPELS, R. DEWIL, Y. LV, AND T. TAN, “Challenges and opportunities in improving the production of bio-ethanol,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 47, pp. 60–88, 2015.

M. M. ISHOLA, A. JAHANDIDEH, B. HAIDARIAN, T. BRANDBERG, AND M. J. TAHERZADEH, “Simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF): A novel method for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 133, pp. 68–73, 2013.

S. N. NAIK, V. V. GOUD, P. K. ROUT, AND A. K. DALAI, “Production of first and second generation biofuels: A comprehensive review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 578–597, 2010.

M. MORALES, J. QUINTERO, R. CONEJEROS, AND G. AROCA, “Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic bioethanol: Environmental impacts and energy balance,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 42, pp. 1349–1361, 2015.

Tim Sekretaris Jenderal Dewan Energi Nasional, “Indonesia Energy Out Look 2019,” J. Chem. Inf. Model., vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1689–1699, 2019.

S. BARAK ET AL., “Measuring the effectiveness of high-performance Co-Optima biofuels on suppressing soot formation at high temperature,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 3451–3460, 2020.

M. VOHRA, J. MANWAR, R. MANMODE, S. PADGILWAR, AND S. PATIL, “Bioethanol production: Feedstock and current technologies,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 573–584, 2014.

Y. Lin and S. Tanaka, “Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: Current state and prospects,” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 627–642, 2006, doi: 10.1007/s00253-005-0229-x.

B. J. KHAWLA ET AL., “Potato peel as feedstock for bioethanol production: A comparison of acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 52, pp. 144–149, 2014.

S. K. THANGAVELU, A. S. AHMED, AND F. N. ANI, “Review on bioethanol as alternative fuel for spark ignition engines,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 56, pp. 820–835, 2016.

S. ANDERSON AND P. K. S. M. RAHMAN, Bioprocessing Requirements for Bioethanol: Sugarcane vs. Sugarcane Bagasse. Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management. United Kingdom: IGI Global, 2018.

H. NOURI, M. AHI, M. AZIN, AND S. L. MOUSAVI GARGARI, “Detoxification vs. adaptation to inhibitory substances in the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate: A case study,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 139, no. October 2019, p. 105629, 2020.

R. A. WAHYUONO, M. N. HAKIM, AND S. A. SANTOSO, “Feasibility Study on the Production of Bioethanol from Tapioca Solid Waste to Meet the National Demand of Biofuel,” Energy Procedia, vol. 65, pp. 324–330, 2015.

ANSAR, NAZARUDDIN, A. D. AZIS, AND A. FUDHOLI, “Enhancement of bioethanol production from palm sap (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr) through optimization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an inoculum,” J. Mater. Res. Technol., vol. 14, pp. 548–554, 2021.

S. M. KHOSHKHO, M. MAHDAVIAN, F. KARIMI, H. KARIMI-MALEH, AND P. RAZAGHI, “Production of bioethanol from carrot pulp in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and beet molasses inoculum; A biomass based investigation,” Chemosphere, vol. 286, no. P1, p. 131688, 2022.

N. HOSSAIN AND T. M. I. MAHLIA, “Progress in physicochemical parameters of microalgae cultivation for biofuel production,” Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 835–859, 2019.

S. H. HO, S. W. HUANG, C. Y. CHEN, T. HASUNUMA, A. KONDO, AND J. S. CHANG, “Bioethanol production using carbohydrate-rich microalgae biomass as feedstock,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 135, pp. 191–198, 2013.

K. A. ABED, A. K. EL MORSI, M. M. SAYED, A. A. E. SHAIB, AND M. S. GAD, “Effect of waste cooking-oil biodiesel on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine,” Egypt. J. Pet., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 985–989, 2018.

J. KATARIA, S. K. MOHAPATRA, AND K. KUNDU, “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using heterogeneous catalysts and its operational characteristics on variable compression ratio CI engine,” J. Energy Inst., vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 275–287, 2019.

M. A. HAZRAT, M. G. RASUL, M. M. K. KHAN, N. ASHWATH, AND T. E. RUFFORD, “Emission characteristics of waste tallow and waste cooking oil based termary biodiesel fuels,” Energy Procedia, vol. 160, no. 2018, pp. 842–847, 2019.